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Chapter 16, Bistatic Remote Sensing

By Scott Gleason, Stephen Lowe and Valery Zavorotny

In addition to sensing the atmosphere, as described in Chapter 15, it is also possible to use GNSS signals as remote sensing radars, in both altimetry or scatterometry configurations. Chapter 16 overviews the novel area of remote-sensing the environment using bistatically reflected GNSS signals. Basic topics discussed include: reflection geometry, signal processing, ocean scattering, and surface modeling theory and potential applications. In addition, this chapter presents the applications of ocean altimetry, ocean scatterometry (wind and wave sensing), land sensing, and ice sensing, using the latest results from aircraft and spacecraft experiments.

Included are Octave/MATLAB scripts that are capable of calculating specular reflection points on the Earth's surface as well as complete system models for generating multidimensional reflected signal maps. Additionally, a C based software receiver is included together with three space-based data sets (one from the ocean, one over land, and a third over sea ice) to allow readers to pursue their own ideas using real bistatic GNSS reflections data.


Software and Processing Tools

Software Receiver for Processing Bistatic Data
Script for Calculating Specular Reflections Points (Octave/MATLAB)
Bistatic Scattering and Wave Models (Octave/MATLAB)



Low Earth Orbit Bistatic Reflections Data

Data Collected Over the Ocean (47Mb)
Data Collected Over Land (46Mb)
Data Collected Over Ice (19Mb)



Useful References

Scott Gleasons Ph.D. Thesis (17Mb)
Remote Sensing of Ocean, Land and Ice Surfaces Using
Bistatically Scattered GNSS Signals From Low Earth Orbit